Research methodology : a step-by-step guide for beginners / Ranjit Kumar.  (Text) (Text)

Kumar, Ranjit
Call no.: Q180.A1 K86 2014Publication: Los Angeles : Sage, 2014Edition: 4th edDescription: xxvii, 399 p. : illISBN: 9781446269961 (hbk.); 1446269965 (hbk.); 1446269973 (pbk.); 9781446269978 (pbk.)Subject(s): Social sciences -- Research -- MethodologyFN 499 Highly correlatedกง 499 Highly correlatedLOC classification: Q180.A1 | K86 2014
Contents:1.Research: a way of thinking -- Research: a way of thinking -- Research: an integral part of your professional practice -- Research: a way to gather evidence for your practice -- Applications of research in practice development and policy formulation -- Research: what does it mean? -- The research process: characteristics and requirements -- Types of research -- Application perspective -- Objectives perspective -- Mode of enquiry perspective -- The mixed/multiple methods approach -- Introduction -- Defining the approach -- Rationale underpinning the approach -- When to use the approach -- Ways of mixing methods -- Advantages and disadvantages -- Considerations to be kept in mind -- Situations in which the approach can be used -- Paradigms of research -- Summary -- 2.The research process: a quick glance -- The research process: an eight-step model -- A.Deciding what to researchStep I Formulating a research problem -- B.Planning how to conduct the study -- Step II Conceptualising a research design -- Step III Constructing an instrument for data collection -- Step IV Selecting a sample -- Step V Writing a research proposal -- C.Conducting a research study -- Step VI Collecting data -- Step VII Processing and displaying data -- Step VIII Writing a research report -- Summary -- Step I Formulating a Research Problem -- 3.Reviewing the literature -- The place of the literature review in research -- Bringing clarity and focus to your research problem -- Improving your research methodology -- Broadening your knowledge base in your research area -- Contextualising your findings -- Difference between a literature review and a summary of the literature -- How to review the literature -- Searching for the existing literature -- Reviewing the selected literature -- Developing a theoretical frameworkDeveloping a conceptual framework -- Writing about the literature reviewed -- Summary -- 4.Formulating a research problem -- The research problem -- The importance of formulating a research problem -- Sources of research problems -- Considerations in selecting a research problem -- Steps in formulating a research problem -- The formulation of research objectives -- The study population -- Establishing operational definitions -- Formulating a research problem in qualitative research -- Summary -- 5.Identifying variables -- What is a variable? -- The difference between a concept and a variable -- Converting concepts into variables -- Types of variable -- From the viewpoint of causal relationship -- From the viewpoint of the study design -- From the viewpoint of the unit of measurement -- Types of measurement scale -- The nominal or classificatory scale -- The ordinal or ranking scale -- The interval scaleThe ratio scale -- Summary -- 6.Constructing hypotheses -- The definition of a hypothesis -- The functions of a hypothesis -- The testing of a hypothesis -- The characteristics of a hypothesis -- Types of hypothesis -- Errors in testing a hypothesis -- Hypotheses in qualitative research -- Summary -- Developing a research project: a set of exercises for beginners -- Exercise I Formulation of a research problem -- Step II Conceptualising a Research Design -- 7.The research design -- What is a research design? -- The functions of a research design -- The theory of causality and the research design -- Summary -- 8.Selecting a study design -- Differences between quantitative and qualitative study designs -- Study designs in quantitative research -- Study designs based on the number of contacts -- Study designs based on the reference period -- Study designs based on the nature of the investigationOther designs commonly used in quantitative research -- Study designs in qualitative research -- Case study -- Oral history -- Focus groups/group interviews -- Participant observation -- Holistic research -- Community discussion forums -- Reflective journal log -- Other commonly used philosophy-guided designs -- Action research -- Feminist research -- Participatory research and collaborative enquiry -- Summary -- Exercise II Conceptualising a study design -- Step III Constructing an Instrument for Data Collection -- 9.Selecting a method of data collection -- Differences in the methods of data collection in quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research -- Major approaches to information gathering -- Collecting data using primary sources -- Observation -- The interview -- The questionnaire -- Constructing a research instrument in quantitative research -- Asking personal and sensitive questionsThe order of questions -- Pre-testing a research instrument -- Prerequisites for data collection -- Methods of data collection in qualitative research -- Unstructured interviews -- Observation -- Secondary sources -- Constructing a research instrument in qualitative research -- Collecting data using secondary sources -- Problems with data from secondary sources -- Summary -- 10.Collecting data using attitudinal scales -- Measurement of attitudes in quantitative and qualitative research -- Attitudinal scales in quantitative research -- Functions of attitudinal scales -- Difficulties in developing an attitudinal scale -- Types of attitudinal scale -- The summated rating or Likert scale -- The equal-appearing interval or Thurstone scale -- The cumulative or Guttman scale -- Attitudinal scales and measurement scales -- Attitudes and qualitative research -- Summary -- 11.Establishing the validity and reliability of a research instrumentThe concept of validity -- Types of validity in quantitative research -- Face and content validity -- Concurrent and predictive validity -- Construct validity -- The concept of reliability -- Factors affecting the reliability of a research instrument -- Methods of determining the reliability of an instrument in quantitative research -- External consistency procedures -- Internal consistency procedures -- Validity and reliability in qualitative research -- Summary -- Exercise III Developing a research instrument -- Step IV Selecting a Sample -- 12.Selecting a sample -- The differences between sampling in quantitative and qualitative research -- Sampling in quantitative research -- The concept of sampling -- Sampling terminology -- Principles of sampling -- Factors affecting the inferences drawn from a sample -- Aims in selecting a sample -- Types of sampling -- The calculation of sample sizeSampling in qualitative research -- The concept of saturation point in qualitative research -- Summary -- Exercising IV Selecting a sample -- Step V Writing a Research Proposal -- 13.Writing a research proposal -- The research proposal in quantitative and qualitative research -- Contents of a research proposal -- Preamble/introduction -- The research problem -- Objectives of the study -- Hypotheses to be tested -- Study design -- The setting -- Measurement procedures -- Ethical issues -- Sampling -- Analysis of data -- Structure of the report -- Problems and limitations -- Appendix -- Work schedule -- Budget -- Summary -- Exercise V Writing a research proposal -- Step VI Collecting Data -- 14.Considering ethical issues in data collection -- Ethics: the concept -- Stakeholders in research -- Ethical issues to consider concerning research participants -- Collecting information -- Seeking informed consentProviding incentives -- Seeking sensitive information -- The possibility of causing harm to participants -- Maintaining confidentiality -- Ethical issues to consider relating to the researcher -- Avoiding bias -- Provision or deprivation of a treatment -- Using inappropriate research methodology -- Incorrect reporting -- Inappropriate use of information -- Ethical issues regarding the sponsoring organisation -- Restrictions imposed by the sponsoring organisation -- The misuse of information -- Ethical issues in collecting data from secondary sources -- Summary -- Step VII Processing and Displaying Data -- 15.Processing data -- Data processing in quantitative studies -- Editing -- Coding -- Developing a frame of analysis -- Analysing quantitative data manually -- Data processing in qualitative studies -- Content analysis in qualitative research -- an example -- Data analysis in mixed methods studiesThe role of statistics and computers in research -- Summary -- 16.Displaying data -- Methods of communicating and displaying analysed data -- Text -- Tables -- Graphs -- Statistical Measures -- Summary -- Step VIII Writing a Research Report -- 17.Writing a research report -- Writing a research report -- Developing a draft outline -- Writing about variables -- Referencing -- Writing a bibliography -- Summary.
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1.Research: a way of thinking -- Research: a way of thinking -- Research: an integral part of your professional practice -- Research: a way to gather evidence for your practice -- Applications of research in practice development and policy formulation -- Research: what does it mean? -- The research process: characteristics and requirements -- Types of research -- Application perspective -- Objectives perspective -- Mode of enquiry perspective -- The mixed/multiple methods approach -- Introduction -- Defining the approach -- Rationale underpinning the approach -- When to use the approach -- Ways of mixing methods -- Advantages and disadvantages -- Considerations to be kept in mind -- Situations in which the approach can be used -- Paradigms of research -- Summary -- 2.The research process: a quick glance -- The research process: an eight-step model -- A.Deciding what to research

Step I Formulating a research problem -- B.Planning how to conduct the study -- Step II Conceptualising a research design -- Step III Constructing an instrument for data collection -- Step IV Selecting a sample -- Step V Writing a research proposal -- C.Conducting a research study -- Step VI Collecting data -- Step VII Processing and displaying data -- Step VIII Writing a research report -- Summary -- Step I Formulating a Research Problem -- 3.Reviewing the literature -- The place of the literature review in research -- Bringing clarity and focus to your research problem -- Improving your research methodology -- Broadening your knowledge base in your research area -- Contextualising your findings -- Difference between a literature review and a summary of the literature -- How to review the literature -- Searching for the existing literature -- Reviewing the selected literature -- Developing a theoretical framework

Developing a conceptual framework -- Writing about the literature reviewed -- Summary -- 4.Formulating a research problem -- The research problem -- The importance of formulating a research problem -- Sources of research problems -- Considerations in selecting a research problem -- Steps in formulating a research problem -- The formulation of research objectives -- The study population -- Establishing operational definitions -- Formulating a research problem in qualitative research -- Summary -- 5.Identifying variables -- What is a variable? -- The difference between a concept and a variable -- Converting concepts into variables -- Types of variable -- From the viewpoint of causal relationship -- From the viewpoint of the study design -- From the viewpoint of the unit of measurement -- Types of measurement scale -- The nominal or classificatory scale -- The ordinal or ranking scale -- The interval scale

The ratio scale -- Summary -- 6.Constructing hypotheses -- The definition of a hypothesis -- The functions of a hypothesis -- The testing of a hypothesis -- The characteristics of a hypothesis -- Types of hypothesis -- Errors in testing a hypothesis -- Hypotheses in qualitative research -- Summary -- Developing a research project: a set of exercises for beginners -- Exercise I Formulation of a research problem -- Step II Conceptualising a Research Design -- 7.The research design -- What is a research design? -- The functions of a research design -- The theory of causality and the research design -- Summary -- 8.Selecting a study design -- Differences between quantitative and qualitative study designs -- Study designs in quantitative research -- Study designs based on the number of contacts -- Study designs based on the reference period -- Study designs based on the nature of the investigation

Other designs commonly used in quantitative research -- Study designs in qualitative research -- Case study -- Oral history -- Focus groups/group interviews -- Participant observation -- Holistic research -- Community discussion forums -- Reflective journal log -- Other commonly used philosophy-guided designs -- Action research -- Feminist research -- Participatory research and collaborative enquiry -- Summary -- Exercise II Conceptualising a study design -- Step III Constructing an Instrument for Data Collection -- 9.Selecting a method of data collection -- Differences in the methods of data collection in quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research -- Major approaches to information gathering -- Collecting data using primary sources -- Observation -- The interview -- The questionnaire -- Constructing a research instrument in quantitative research -- Asking personal and sensitive questions

The order of questions -- Pre-testing a research instrument -- Prerequisites for data collection -- Methods of data collection in qualitative research -- Unstructured interviews -- Observation -- Secondary sources -- Constructing a research instrument in qualitative research -- Collecting data using secondary sources -- Problems with data from secondary sources -- Summary -- 10.Collecting data using attitudinal scales -- Measurement of attitudes in quantitative and qualitative research -- Attitudinal scales in quantitative research -- Functions of attitudinal scales -- Difficulties in developing an attitudinal scale -- Types of attitudinal scale -- The summated rating or Likert scale -- The equal-appearing interval or Thurstone scale -- The cumulative or Guttman scale -- Attitudinal scales and measurement scales -- Attitudes and qualitative research -- Summary -- 11.Establishing the validity and reliability of a research instrument

The concept of validity -- Types of validity in quantitative research -- Face and content validity -- Concurrent and predictive validity -- Construct validity -- The concept of reliability -- Factors affecting the reliability of a research instrument -- Methods of determining the reliability of an instrument in quantitative research -- External consistency procedures -- Internal consistency procedures -- Validity and reliability in qualitative research -- Summary -- Exercise III Developing a research instrument -- Step IV Selecting a Sample -- 12.Selecting a sample -- The differences between sampling in quantitative and qualitative research -- Sampling in quantitative research -- The concept of sampling -- Sampling terminology -- Principles of sampling -- Factors affecting the inferences drawn from a sample -- Aims in selecting a sample -- Types of sampling -- The calculation of sample size

Sampling in qualitative research -- The concept of saturation point in qualitative research -- Summary -- Exercising IV Selecting a sample -- Step V Writing a Research Proposal -- 13.Writing a research proposal -- The research proposal in quantitative and qualitative research -- Contents of a research proposal -- Preamble/introduction -- The research problem -- Objectives of the study -- Hypotheses to be tested -- Study design -- The setting -- Measurement procedures -- Ethical issues -- Sampling -- Analysis of data -- Structure of the report -- Problems and limitations -- Appendix -- Work schedule -- Budget -- Summary -- Exercise V Writing a research proposal -- Step VI Collecting Data -- 14.Considering ethical issues in data collection -- Ethics: the concept -- Stakeholders in research -- Ethical issues to consider concerning research participants -- Collecting information -- Seeking informed consent

Providing incentives -- Seeking sensitive information -- The possibility of causing harm to participants -- Maintaining confidentiality -- Ethical issues to consider relating to the researcher -- Avoiding bias -- Provision or deprivation of a treatment -- Using inappropriate research methodology -- Incorrect reporting -- Inappropriate use of information -- Ethical issues regarding the sponsoring organisation -- Restrictions imposed by the sponsoring organisation -- The misuse of information -- Ethical issues in collecting data from secondary sources -- Summary -- Step VII Processing and Displaying Data -- 15.Processing data -- Data processing in quantitative studies -- Editing -- Coding -- Developing a frame of analysis -- Analysing quantitative data manually -- Data processing in qualitative studies -- Content analysis in qualitative research -- an example -- Data analysis in mixed methods studies

The role of statistics and computers in research -- Summary -- 16.Displaying data -- Methods of communicating and displaying analysed data -- Text -- Tables -- Graphs -- Statistical Measures -- Summary -- Step VIII Writing a Research Report -- 17.Writing a research report -- Writing a research report -- Developing a draft outline -- Writing about variables -- Referencing -- Writing a bibliography -- Summary.

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