Economics of the public sector / Joseph E. Stiglitz, Jay K. Rosengard.  (Text) (Text)

Stiglitz, Joseph E
Rosengard, Jay K
Call no.: HJ257.2 .S73 2015Publication: New York : W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., c2015Edition: 4th edDescription: xxxii, 923 p. : illISBN: 9780393925227 (pbk.); 0393925226 (pbk.); 9780393937091; 0393937097Subject(s): Finance, Public -- United StatesFiscal policy -- United StatesLOC classification: HJ257.2 | .S73 2015
Contents:Machine generated contents note: 1. Defining Public Sector Responsibilities -- The Economic Role of Government -- The Mixed Economy of the United States -- Different Perspectives on the Role of Government -- An Impetus for Government Action: Market Failures -- Achieving Balance between the Public and Private Sectors -- The Emerging Consensus -- Thinking Like a Public Sector Economist -- Analyzing the Public Sector -- Economic Models -- Case Study Musgrave's Three Branches -- Normative versus Positive Economics -- Disagreements among Economists -- Differences in Views on How the Economy Behaves -- Disagreement over Values -- Case Study Public Sector Economics and the Global Economic Crisis -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 2. Measuring Public Sector Size -- What or Who Is the Government? -- Types of Government Activity -- Providing a Legal System -- Government Production -- Government's Influence on Private Production --Government Purchases of Goods and Services -- Government Redistribution of Income -- Overview of Government Expenditures -- Gauging the Size of the Public Sector -- Growth in Expenditures and Their Changing Composition -- Case Study Estimating the Full Budgetary and Economic Costs of War -- Comparison of Expenditures across Countries -- Government Revenues -- Taxes and the Constitution -- Federal Taxation Today -- State and Local Government Revenues -- Comparison of Taxation across Countries -- Deficit Financing -- Playing Tricks with the Data on Government Activities -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 3. Market Efficiency -- The Invisible Hand of Competitive Markets -- Welfare Economics and Pareto Efficiency -- Case Study On the Prowl for Pareto Improvements -- Pareto Efficiency and Individualism -- The Fundamental Theorems of Welfare Economics -- Efficiency from the Perspective of a Single Market --Analyzing Economic Efficiency -- The Utility Possibilities Curve -- Exchange Efficiency -- Production Efficiency -- Product Mix Efficiency -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 4. Market Failure -- Property Rights and Contract Enforcement -- Case Study Property Rights and Market Failures: The Tragedy of the Commons Revisited -- Market Failures and the Role of Government -- 1. Failure of Competition -- 2. Public Goods -- 3. Externalities -- 4. Incomplete Markets -- Case Study Student Loans: Incomplete Reform of an Incomplete Market -- 5. Information Failures -- 6. Unemployment, Inflation, and Disequilibrium -- Interrelationships of Market Failures -- Case Study Market Failures: Explanations or Excuses? -- Redistribution and Merit Goods -- Two Perspectives on the Role of Government -- Normative Analysis -- Positive Analysis -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems --5. Public Goods And Publicly Provided Private Goods -- Public Goods -- Public Goods and Market Failures -- Paying for Public Goods -- The Free Rider Problem -- Case Study Economists and the Free Rider Problem -- Pure and Impure Public Goods -- Case Study Property Rights, Excludability, and Externalities -- Publicly Provided Private Goods -- Rationing Devices for Publicly Provided Private Goods -- Efficiency Conditions for Public Goods -- Demand Curves for Public Goods -- Pareto Efficiency and Income Distribution -- Limitations on Income Redistribution and the Efficient Supply of Public Goods -- Distortionary Taxation and the Efficient Supply of Public Goods -- Efficient Government as a Public Good -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: The Leftover Curve -- 6. Externalities And The Environment -- The Problem of Externalities -- Private Solutions to Externalities -- Internalizing Externalities --The Coase Theorem -- Using the Legal System -- Case Study The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill -- Failures of Private Solutions -- Public Sector Solutions to Externalities -- Case Study Double Dividend -- Market-Based Solutions -- Regulation -- Innovation -- Information Disclosure -- Compensation and Distribution -- Protecting the Environment: The Role of Government in Practice -- Air -- Water -- Land -- Concluding Remarks -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 7. Efficiency And Equity -- Efficiency and Distribution Trade-Offs -- Analyzing Social Choices -- Determining the Trade-Offs -- Evaluating the Trade-Offs -- Two Caveats -- Social Choices in Practice -- Measuring Benefits -- Ordinary and Compensated Demand Curves -- Consumer Surplus -- Measuring Aggregate Social Benefits -- Measuring Inefficiency -- Case Study Drawing a Poverty Line -- Quantifying Distributional Effects -- Case Study The Great Gatsby Curve --Three Approaches to Social Choices -- The Compensation Principle -- Trade-Offs across Measures -- Weighted Net Benefits -- The Trade-Off between Efficiency and Fairness Revisited -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: Alternative Measures of Inequality -- The Lorenz Curve -- The Dalton-Atkinson Measure -- 8. Public Production Of Goods And Services -- Natural Monopoly: Public Production of Private Goods -- The Basic Economics of Natural Monopoly -- Regulation and Taxation (Subsidies) -- No Government Intervention -- Government Failures -- Case Study Rent Control and Agricultural Price Supports: Case Studies in Government Failure -- Comparison of Efficiency in the Public and Private Sectors -- Case Study National Performance Review -- Sources of Inefficiency in the Public Sector -- Organizational Differences -- Individual Differences -- Bureaucratic Procedures and Risk Aversion -- Corporatization --Case Study Privatizing Prisons -- A Growing Consensus on Government's Role in Production -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 9. Public Choice -- Public Mechanisms for Allocating Resources -- The Problem of Preference Revelation -- Individual Preferences for Public Goods -- The Problem of Aggregating Preferences -- Majority Voting and the Voting Paradox -- Arrow's Impossibility Theorem -- Single-Peaked Preferences and the Existence of a Majority Voting Equilibrium -- The Median Voter -- The Inefficiency of the Majority Voting Equilibrium -- The Two-Party System and the Median Voter -- Case Study Social Choice Theory -- Alternatives for Determining Public Goods Expenditures -- Lindahl Equilibrium -- Politics and Economics -- Why Do Individuals Vote? -- Elections and Special Interest Groups -- The Power of Special Interest Groups -- Other Aspects of the Political Process -- Case Study Campaign Finance Reform --The Altruistic Politician? -- The Persistence of Inefficient Equilibrium -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: New Preference-Revelation Mechanisms -- 10. Framework For Analysis Of Expenditure Policy -- Need for a Program -- Market Failures -- Case Study Higher Education in the United States -- Alternative Forms of Government Intervention -- The Importance of Particular Design Features -- Private Sector Responses to Government Programs -- Efficiency Consequences -- Income and Substitution Effects and Induced Inefficiency -- Distributional Consequences -- Evaluating the Distributional Consequences -- Case Study Incidence of Education Tax Credits -- Fairness and Distribution -- Equity-Efficiency Trade-Offs -- Public Policy Objectives -- Political Process -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 11. Evaluating Public Expenditure -- Private Cost-Benefit Analysis --Present Discounted Value -- Social Cost-Benefit Analysis -- Consumer Surplus and the Decision to Undertake a Project -- Measuring Nonmonetized Costs and Benefits -- Valuing Time -- Valuing Life -- Case Study Children, Car Safety, and the Value of Life -- Valuing Natural Resources -- Shadow Prices and Market Prices -- Discount Rate for Social Cost-Benefit Analysis -- Case Study Climate Change and Discount Rates -- The Evaluation of Risk -- Risk Assessment -- Distributional Considerations -- Cost Effectiveness -- Post-Expenditure Evaluation: Assessing and Improving Government Performance -- Case Study Taking a Bite Out of Crime in the Big Apple -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 12. Defense, Research, And Technology -- Defense Expenditures -- The Value of Marginal Analysis -- Defense Strategy -- Case Study Game Theory, the Arms Race, and the Theory of Deterrence -- Case Study Converting Swords into Plowshares.Increasing the Efficiency of the Defense Department -- Defense Procurement -- Defense Conversion -- Accounting and the Defense Department -- Research and Technology -- Market Failures -- Case Study The Scope of the Patent: Can the Human Body Be Patented? -- Government Direct Support -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 13. Health Care -- The Health Care System in the United States -- The Private Sector -- The Role of Government -- Other Expenditure Programs -- Tax Expenditures -- Rationale for a Role of Government in the Health Care Sector -- Imperfect Information -- Limited Competition -- Absence of Profit Motive -- Special Characteristics of the U.S. Market -- The Role of the Health Insurance Industry -- Case Study Medical Malpractice -- Insurance and Excessive Expenditures on Health Care -- Consequences of Inefficiencies in Health Care Markets -- Poverty, Incomplete Coverage, and the Role of Government --Reforming Health Care -- Cost Containment -- Case Study Comprehensive Health Care Reform -- Extending Insurance Coverage -- Medicare Reform: Easing Long-Term Fiscal Strains -- Reforming Medicaid -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 14. Education -- The Structure of Education in the United States -- Federal Tax Subsidies to Private and Public Schools -- Why Is Education Publicly Provided and Publicly Financed? -- Is There a Market Failure? -- The Federal Role -- Issues and Controversies in Educational Policy -- Education Outcomes -- Do Expenditures Matter? -- School Vouchers: Choice and Competition -- Case Study Vouchers: The San Jose and Milwaukee Experiments -- School Decentralization -- Performance Standards: No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top -- Inequality -- Aid to Higher Education -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems --Appendix: How Should Public Educational Funds Be Allocated? -- 15. Welfare Programs And The Redistribution Of Income -- A Brief Description of Major U.S. Welfare Programs -- AFDC and TANF -- Earned Income Tax Credit -- Food Stamps/SNAP -- Medicaid -- Housing -- Other Programs -- Rationale for Government Welfare Programs -- Dimensions of the Problem -- Analytic Issues -- Labor Supply -- Cash versus In-Kind Redistribution -- Inefficiencies from In-Kind Benefits -- Are In-Kind Benefits Paternalistic? -- Categorical versus Broad-Based Aid -- Is Means Testing Objectionable in Its Own Right? -- Other Distortions -- Case Study Conditional Cash Transfer Programs -- Welfare Reform: Integration of Programs -- The Welfare Reform Bill of 1996 -- Block Granting -- Analytics of State Responses to Block Grants -- Time Limits -- Mandatory Work -- The Welfare Reform Debate of 1996 -- Case Study The Person or the Place? -- Concluding Remarks -- Review and Practice --Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 16. Social Insurance -- The Social Security System -- Social Security, Private Insurance, and Market Failures -- High Transactions Costs -- Risk Mitigation -- Lack of Indexing: The Inability of Private Markets to Insure Social Risks -- Adverse Selection, Differential Risks, and the Cost of Insurance -- Moral Hazard and Social Security -- Retirement Insurance as a Merit Good -- Social Security, Forced Savings, and Individual Choice -- Is There a Need to Reform Social Security? -- The Nature of the Fiscal Crisis -- Savings -- Labor Supply -- The Rate of Return -- Inequities -- Reforming Social Security -- Reducing Expenditures -- Increasing Revenues -- Structural Reforms -- Case Study Social Security Abroad -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 17. Introduction To Taxation -- Background -- Forms of Taxation -- Changing Patterns of Taxation in the United States --Comparisons with Other Countries -- The Five Desirable Characteristics of Any Tax System -- Economic Efficiency -- Administrative Costs -- Case Study Corrective Taxes and the Double Dividend -- Flexibility -- Transparent Political Responsibility -- Fairness -- Case Study Corruption-Resistant Tax Systems -- General Framework for Choosing among Tax Systems -- Utilitarianism -- Rawlsian Social Welfare Function -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 18. Tax Incidence -- Tax Incidence in Competitive Markets -- Effect of Tax at the Level of a Firm -- Impact on Market Equilibrium -- Does It Matter Whether the Tax Is Levied on Consumers or on Producers? -- Case Study The Incidence of Government Benefits -- Ad Valorem versus Specific Taxes -- The Effect of Elasticity -- Taxation of Factors -- Case Study The Philadelphia Wage Tax -- Tax Incidence in Environments without Perfect Competition --Relationship between the Change in the Price and the Tax -- Ad Valorem versus Specific Taxes -- Tax Incidence in Oligopolies -- Equivalent Taxes -- Income Tax and Value-Added Tax -- Equivalence of Consumption and Wage Taxes -- Equivalence of Lifetime Consumption and Lifetime Income Taxes -- A Caveat on Equivalence -- Other Factors Affecting Tax Incidence -- Tax Incidence under Partial and General Equilibrium -- Case Study Behavioral Economics, Managerial Capitalism, and Tax Incidence -- Short-Run versus Long-Run Effects -- Open versus Closed Economy -- Associated Policy Changes -- Case Study Tax Incidence of Specific Tax Provisions -- Incidence of Taxes in the United States -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: Comparison of the Effects of an Ad Valorem and Specific Commodity Tax on a Monopolist -- 19. Taxation And Economic Efficiency -- Effect of Taxes Borne by Consumers.Substitution and Income Effects -- Quantifying the Distortions -- Measuring Deadweight Loss Using Indifference Curves -- Measuring Deadweight Loss Using Compensated Demand Curves -- Calculating the Deadweight Loss -- Effect of Taxes Borne by Producers -- Effects of Taxes Borne Partly by Consumers, Partly by Producers -- Taxation of Savings -- Quantifying the Effects of an Interest Income Tax -- Taxation of Labor Income -- Effects of Progressive Taxation -- Case Study The 1993, 2001, and 2003 Tax Reforms -- Secondary Labor Force Participants -- Measuring the Effects of Taxes on Labor Supplied -- Statistical Techniques Using Market Data -- Experiments -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: Measuring the Welfare Cost of User Fees -- 20. Optimal Taxation -- Two Fallacies of Optimal Taxation -- The Fallacy of Counting Distortions -- Misinterpretations of the Theory of the Second Best --Optimal and Pareto Efficient Taxation -- Lump-Sum Taxes -- Why Impose Distortionary Taxes? -- Case Study Estimating the Optimal Tax Rate -- Case Study Rent Seeking, Inequality, and Optimal Taxation -- Designing an Income Tax System -- Why Does More Progressivity Imply More Deadweight Loss? -- A Diagrammatic Analysis of the Deadweight Loss of Progressive Taxation -- Choosing among Flat-Rate Tax Schedules -- Case Study The -- Tax Increase on Upper-Income Individuals: A Pareto Inefficient Tax? -- General Equilibrium Effects -- Case Study Flat-Rate Taxes Arrive on the Political Scene -- Differential Taxation -- Ramsey Taxes -- Differential Commodity Taxes in Advanced Countries with Progressive Income Taxes -- Interest Income Taxation and Commodity Taxation -- Taxes on Producers -- The Dependence of Optimal Tax Structure on the Set of Available Taxes -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems --Appendix A: Deriving Ramsey Taxes on Commodities -- Appendix B: Derivation of Ramsey Formula for Linear Demand Schedule -- 21. Taxation Of Capital -- Should Capital Be Taxed? -- Relationship among Consumption Taxes, a Wage Tax, and Exempting Capital Income from Taxation -- Equity Issues -- Efficiency Arguments -- Administrative Problems -- Effects on Savings and Investment -- Effects of Reduced Savings in a Closed Economy -- The Distinction between Savings and Investment -- National Savings and Budget Neutrality -- Effects of Reduced Savings in an Open Economy -- Impact on Risk Taking -- Why Capital Taxation with Full Loss Deductibility May Increase Risk Taking -- Case Study Tax Incentives for Risk Taking -- Why Capital Taxation May Reduce Risk Taking -- Measuring Changes in Asset Values -- Capital Gains -- Case Study Equity and the Reduction in Capital Gains Taxes -- Depreciation -- Case Study Distortions from Depreciation -- Neutral Taxation --Inflation -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 22. The Personal Income Tax -- Outline of the U.S. Income Tax -- Legislated versus Actual Tax Rates -- Case Study A Loophole in the Earned Income Tax Credit? -- Other Taxes -- Principles Behind the U.S. Income Tax -- The Income-Based Principle and the Haig-Simons Definition -- The Progressivity Principle -- The Family-Based Principle -- The Annual Measure of Income Principle -- Practical Problems in Implementing an Income Tax System -- Determining Income -- Timing -- Personal Deductions -- Deductions versus Credits -- Case Study Temporary Tax Changes -- Special Treatment of Capital Income -- Housing -- Savings for Retirement -- Interest on State and Municipal Bonds -- Capital Gains -- Concluding Remarks -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 23. The Corporation Income Tax -- The Basic Features of the Corporation Income Tax --The Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax and Its Effect on Efficiency -- The Corporation Income Tax as a Tax on Income from Capital in the Corporate Sector -- Shifting of the Corporate Tax in the Long Run -- The Corporation Tax for a Firm without Borrowing Constraints -- Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax with Credit-Constrained Firms -- The Corporation Tax as a Tax on Monopoly Profits -- Managerial Firms: An Alternative Perspective -- Depreciation -- Combined Effects of Individual and Corporate Income Tax -- Distributing Funds: The Basic Principles -- The Dividend Paradox -- Mergers, Acquisitions, and Share Repurchases -- Does the Corporate Tax Bias Firms toward Debt Finance? -- Distortions in Organizational Form Arising because Some Firms Do Not Have Taxable Income -- Are Corporations Tax Preferred? -- Calculating Effective Tax Rates -- The Corporation Tax as Economic Policy --Case Study The Proposed Incremental Investment Tax Credit of 1993: An Idea before Its Time? -- Taxation of Multinationals -- Case Study Foreign Income and the Corporation Income Tax -- Should There Be a Corporation Income Tax? -- Why Is There a Corporate Income Tax at All? -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 24.A Student's Guide To Tax Avoidance -- Principles of Tax Avoidance -- Postponement of Taxes -- Shifting and Tax Arbitrage -- Case Study Shorting against the Box -- Tax Shelters -- Case Study The Economics of Tax Avoidance -- Who Gains from Tax Shelters -- Middle-Class Tax Shelters -- Tax Reform and Tax Avoidance -- The 1986 Tax Reform -- Minimum Tax on Individuals -- Subsequent Tax Acts -- Equity, Efficiency, and Tax Reform -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 25. Reform Of The Tax System -- Fairness -- Horizontal Equity Issues -- Vertical Equity -- Efficiency --Case Study Marginal Tax Rates and the 1986 Tax Reform -- Base Broadening -- Interaction of Fairness and Efficiency Concerns -- Simplifying the Tax Code -- Assessing Complexity -- Increasing Compliance -- Reducing Tax Avoidance -- Reducing Administrative and Compliance Costs -- Sources of Complexity -- The 1986 Tax Reform -- Transition Issues and the Politics of Tax Reform -- Tax Reforms for the Twenty-First Century -- Reforms within the Current Framework -- Major New Reforms -- Case Study Ordinary Income versus Capital Gains -- Case Study IRAs and National Savings -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 26. Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations -- The Division of Responsibilities -- Other Interaction between the Federal Government and the State and Local Governments -- The Size of Financial Transfers -- Case Study Unfunded Mandates -- Principles of Fiscal Federalism -- National Public Goods versus Local Public Goods --Case Study International Public Goods -- Do Local Communities Provide Local Public Goods Efficiently? -- Tiebout Hypothesis -- Market Failures -- Redistribution -- Other Arguments for Local Provision -- Production versus Finance -- Effectiveness of Federal Categorical Aid to Local Communities -- The Federal Tax System and Local Expenditures -- Concluding Remarks -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 27. Subnational Taxes And Expenditures -- Tax Incidence Applied to Local Public Finance -- Local Capital Taxes -- Property Tax -- Case Study The U.S. Property Tax Revolt -- Income, Wage, and Sales Taxes -- Distortions -- Limitations on the Ability to Redistribute Income -- Rent Control -- Capitalization -- Incentives for Pension Schemes -- Choice of Debt versus Tax Financing -- Short-Run versus Long-Run Capitalization -- Who Benefits From Local Public Goods? The Capitalization Hypothesis --Absolute versus Relative Capitalization -- The Use of Changes in Land Rents to Measure Benefits -- Testing the Capitalization Hypothesis -- Public Choice at the Local Level -- Problems of Multijurisdictional Taxation -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 28. Fiscal Deficits And Government Debt -- The U.S. Deficit Problem since the 1980s -- Sources of the Deficit Problem -- Factors Not Contributing to the Deficit Problem -- Success in Taming the Deficit: The Experience of the 1990s -- Case Study Measuring Budget Deficits: What's Large, What's Real, and What's Right? -- Consequences of Government Deficits -- How Deficits Affect Future Generations When the Economy Is at Full Employment -- Alternative Perspectives on the Burden of the Debt -- Case Study Austerity in a Recession: Expansionary or Contractionary? -- Improving the Budgetary Process -- Budget Enforcement Act and Scoring -- Capital Budgets --Other Strategies -- The Long-Term Problem: Entitlements and the Aged -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems.
แท็ก: ไม่มีแท็กจากห้องสมุดสำหรับชื่อเรื่องนี้ เข้าสู่ระบบเพื่อเพิ่มแท็ก
ประเภททรัพยากร ตำแหน่งปัจจุบัน กลุ่มข้อมูล ตำแหน่งชั้นหนังสือ เลขเรียกหนังสือ สถานะ วันกำหนดส่ง บาร์โค้ด การจองรายการ
Book Book Puey Ungphakorn Library, Rangsit Campus
General Books General Stacks HJ257.2 .S73 2015 (เรียกดูชั้นหนังสือ) Show map พร้อมให้บริการ
31379015140735
รายการจองทั้งหมด: 0

Includes bibliographical references (pages 880-892) and index.

Machine generated contents note: 1. Defining Public Sector Responsibilities -- The Economic Role of Government -- The Mixed Economy of the United States -- Different Perspectives on the Role of Government -- An Impetus for Government Action: Market Failures -- Achieving Balance between the Public and Private Sectors -- The Emerging Consensus -- Thinking Like a Public Sector Economist -- Analyzing the Public Sector -- Economic Models -- Case Study Musgrave's Three Branches -- Normative versus Positive Economics -- Disagreements among Economists -- Differences in Views on How the Economy Behaves -- Disagreement over Values -- Case Study Public Sector Economics and the Global Economic Crisis -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 2. Measuring Public Sector Size -- What or Who Is the Government? -- Types of Government Activity -- Providing a Legal System -- Government Production -- Government's Influence on Private Production --

Government Purchases of Goods and Services -- Government Redistribution of Income -- Overview of Government Expenditures -- Gauging the Size of the Public Sector -- Growth in Expenditures and Their Changing Composition -- Case Study Estimating the Full Budgetary and Economic Costs of War -- Comparison of Expenditures across Countries -- Government Revenues -- Taxes and the Constitution -- Federal Taxation Today -- State and Local Government Revenues -- Comparison of Taxation across Countries -- Deficit Financing -- Playing Tricks with the Data on Government Activities -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 3. Market Efficiency -- The Invisible Hand of Competitive Markets -- Welfare Economics and Pareto Efficiency -- Case Study On the Prowl for Pareto Improvements -- Pareto Efficiency and Individualism -- The Fundamental Theorems of Welfare Economics -- Efficiency from the Perspective of a Single Market --

Analyzing Economic Efficiency -- The Utility Possibilities Curve -- Exchange Efficiency -- Production Efficiency -- Product Mix Efficiency -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 4. Market Failure -- Property Rights and Contract Enforcement -- Case Study Property Rights and Market Failures: The Tragedy of the Commons Revisited -- Market Failures and the Role of Government -- 1. Failure of Competition -- 2. Public Goods -- 3. Externalities -- 4. Incomplete Markets -- Case Study Student Loans: Incomplete Reform of an Incomplete Market -- 5. Information Failures -- 6. Unemployment, Inflation, and Disequilibrium -- Interrelationships of Market Failures -- Case Study Market Failures: Explanations or Excuses? -- Redistribution and Merit Goods -- Two Perspectives on the Role of Government -- Normative Analysis -- Positive Analysis -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems --

5. Public Goods And Publicly Provided Private Goods -- Public Goods -- Public Goods and Market Failures -- Paying for Public Goods -- The Free Rider Problem -- Case Study Economists and the Free Rider Problem -- Pure and Impure Public Goods -- Case Study Property Rights, Excludability, and Externalities -- Publicly Provided Private Goods -- Rationing Devices for Publicly Provided Private Goods -- Efficiency Conditions for Public Goods -- Demand Curves for Public Goods -- Pareto Efficiency and Income Distribution -- Limitations on Income Redistribution and the Efficient Supply of Public Goods -- Distortionary Taxation and the Efficient Supply of Public Goods -- Efficient Government as a Public Good -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: The Leftover Curve -- 6. Externalities And The Environment -- The Problem of Externalities -- Private Solutions to Externalities -- Internalizing Externalities --

The Coase Theorem -- Using the Legal System -- Case Study The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill -- Failures of Private Solutions -- Public Sector Solutions to Externalities -- Case Study Double Dividend -- Market-Based Solutions -- Regulation -- Innovation -- Information Disclosure -- Compensation and Distribution -- Protecting the Environment: The Role of Government in Practice -- Air -- Water -- Land -- Concluding Remarks -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 7. Efficiency And Equity -- Efficiency and Distribution Trade-Offs -- Analyzing Social Choices -- Determining the Trade-Offs -- Evaluating the Trade-Offs -- Two Caveats -- Social Choices in Practice -- Measuring Benefits -- Ordinary and Compensated Demand Curves -- Consumer Surplus -- Measuring Aggregate Social Benefits -- Measuring Inefficiency -- Case Study Drawing a Poverty Line -- Quantifying Distributional Effects -- Case Study The Great Gatsby Curve --

Three Approaches to Social Choices -- The Compensation Principle -- Trade-Offs across Measures -- Weighted Net Benefits -- The Trade-Off between Efficiency and Fairness Revisited -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: Alternative Measures of Inequality -- The Lorenz Curve -- The Dalton-Atkinson Measure -- 8. Public Production Of Goods And Services -- Natural Monopoly: Public Production of Private Goods -- The Basic Economics of Natural Monopoly -- Regulation and Taxation (Subsidies) -- No Government Intervention -- Government Failures -- Case Study Rent Control and Agricultural Price Supports: Case Studies in Government Failure -- Comparison of Efficiency in the Public and Private Sectors -- Case Study National Performance Review -- Sources of Inefficiency in the Public Sector -- Organizational Differences -- Individual Differences -- Bureaucratic Procedures and Risk Aversion -- Corporatization --

Case Study Privatizing Prisons -- A Growing Consensus on Government's Role in Production -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 9. Public Choice -- Public Mechanisms for Allocating Resources -- The Problem of Preference Revelation -- Individual Preferences for Public Goods -- The Problem of Aggregating Preferences -- Majority Voting and the Voting Paradox -- Arrow's Impossibility Theorem -- Single-Peaked Preferences and the Existence of a Majority Voting Equilibrium -- The Median Voter -- The Inefficiency of the Majority Voting Equilibrium -- The Two-Party System and the Median Voter -- Case Study Social Choice Theory -- Alternatives for Determining Public Goods Expenditures -- Lindahl Equilibrium -- Politics and Economics -- Why Do Individuals Vote? -- Elections and Special Interest Groups -- The Power of Special Interest Groups -- Other Aspects of the Political Process -- Case Study Campaign Finance Reform --

The Altruistic Politician? -- The Persistence of Inefficient Equilibrium -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: New Preference-Revelation Mechanisms -- 10. Framework For Analysis Of Expenditure Policy -- Need for a Program -- Market Failures -- Case Study Higher Education in the United States -- Alternative Forms of Government Intervention -- The Importance of Particular Design Features -- Private Sector Responses to Government Programs -- Efficiency Consequences -- Income and Substitution Effects and Induced Inefficiency -- Distributional Consequences -- Evaluating the Distributional Consequences -- Case Study Incidence of Education Tax Credits -- Fairness and Distribution -- Equity-Efficiency Trade-Offs -- Public Policy Objectives -- Political Process -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 11. Evaluating Public Expenditure -- Private Cost-Benefit Analysis --

Present Discounted Value -- Social Cost-Benefit Analysis -- Consumer Surplus and the Decision to Undertake a Project -- Measuring Nonmonetized Costs and Benefits -- Valuing Time -- Valuing Life -- Case Study Children, Car Safety, and the Value of Life -- Valuing Natural Resources -- Shadow Prices and Market Prices -- Discount Rate for Social Cost-Benefit Analysis -- Case Study Climate Change and Discount Rates -- The Evaluation of Risk -- Risk Assessment -- Distributional Considerations -- Cost Effectiveness -- Post-Expenditure Evaluation: Assessing and Improving Government Performance -- Case Study Taking a Bite Out of Crime in the Big Apple -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 12. Defense, Research, And Technology -- Defense Expenditures -- The Value of Marginal Analysis -- Defense Strategy -- Case Study Game Theory, the Arms Race, and the Theory of Deterrence -- Case Study Converting Swords into Plowshares.

Increasing the Efficiency of the Defense Department -- Defense Procurement -- Defense Conversion -- Accounting and the Defense Department -- Research and Technology -- Market Failures -- Case Study The Scope of the Patent: Can the Human Body Be Patented? -- Government Direct Support -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 13. Health Care -- The Health Care System in the United States -- The Private Sector -- The Role of Government -- Other Expenditure Programs -- Tax Expenditures -- Rationale for a Role of Government in the Health Care Sector -- Imperfect Information -- Limited Competition -- Absence of Profit Motive -- Special Characteristics of the U.S. Market -- The Role of the Health Insurance Industry -- Case Study Medical Malpractice -- Insurance and Excessive Expenditures on Health Care -- Consequences of Inefficiencies in Health Care Markets -- Poverty, Incomplete Coverage, and the Role of Government --

Reforming Health Care -- Cost Containment -- Case Study Comprehensive Health Care Reform -- Extending Insurance Coverage -- Medicare Reform: Easing Long-Term Fiscal Strains -- Reforming Medicaid -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 14. Education -- The Structure of Education in the United States -- Federal Tax Subsidies to Private and Public Schools -- Why Is Education Publicly Provided and Publicly Financed? -- Is There a Market Failure? -- The Federal Role -- Issues and Controversies in Educational Policy -- Education Outcomes -- Do Expenditures Matter? -- School Vouchers: Choice and Competition -- Case Study Vouchers: The San Jose and Milwaukee Experiments -- School Decentralization -- Performance Standards: No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top -- Inequality -- Aid to Higher Education -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems --

Appendix: How Should Public Educational Funds Be Allocated? -- 15. Welfare Programs And The Redistribution Of Income -- A Brief Description of Major U.S. Welfare Programs -- AFDC and TANF -- Earned Income Tax Credit -- Food Stamps/SNAP -- Medicaid -- Housing -- Other Programs -- Rationale for Government Welfare Programs -- Dimensions of the Problem -- Analytic Issues -- Labor Supply -- Cash versus In-Kind Redistribution -- Inefficiencies from In-Kind Benefits -- Are In-Kind Benefits Paternalistic? -- Categorical versus Broad-Based Aid -- Is Means Testing Objectionable in Its Own Right? -- Other Distortions -- Case Study Conditional Cash Transfer Programs -- Welfare Reform: Integration of Programs -- The Welfare Reform Bill of 1996 -- Block Granting -- Analytics of State Responses to Block Grants -- Time Limits -- Mandatory Work -- The Welfare Reform Debate of 1996 -- Case Study The Person or the Place? -- Concluding Remarks -- Review and Practice --

Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 16. Social Insurance -- The Social Security System -- Social Security, Private Insurance, and Market Failures -- High Transactions Costs -- Risk Mitigation -- Lack of Indexing: The Inability of Private Markets to Insure Social Risks -- Adverse Selection, Differential Risks, and the Cost of Insurance -- Moral Hazard and Social Security -- Retirement Insurance as a Merit Good -- Social Security, Forced Savings, and Individual Choice -- Is There a Need to Reform Social Security? -- The Nature of the Fiscal Crisis -- Savings -- Labor Supply -- The Rate of Return -- Inequities -- Reforming Social Security -- Reducing Expenditures -- Increasing Revenues -- Structural Reforms -- Case Study Social Security Abroad -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 17. Introduction To Taxation -- Background -- Forms of Taxation -- Changing Patterns of Taxation in the United States --

Comparisons with Other Countries -- The Five Desirable Characteristics of Any Tax System -- Economic Efficiency -- Administrative Costs -- Case Study Corrective Taxes and the Double Dividend -- Flexibility -- Transparent Political Responsibility -- Fairness -- Case Study Corruption-Resistant Tax Systems -- General Framework for Choosing among Tax Systems -- Utilitarianism -- Rawlsian Social Welfare Function -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 18. Tax Incidence -- Tax Incidence in Competitive Markets -- Effect of Tax at the Level of a Firm -- Impact on Market Equilibrium -- Does It Matter Whether the Tax Is Levied on Consumers or on Producers? -- Case Study The Incidence of Government Benefits -- Ad Valorem versus Specific Taxes -- The Effect of Elasticity -- Taxation of Factors -- Case Study The Philadelphia Wage Tax -- Tax Incidence in Environments without Perfect Competition --

Relationship between the Change in the Price and the Tax -- Ad Valorem versus Specific Taxes -- Tax Incidence in Oligopolies -- Equivalent Taxes -- Income Tax and Value-Added Tax -- Equivalence of Consumption and Wage Taxes -- Equivalence of Lifetime Consumption and Lifetime Income Taxes -- A Caveat on Equivalence -- Other Factors Affecting Tax Incidence -- Tax Incidence under Partial and General Equilibrium -- Case Study Behavioral Economics, Managerial Capitalism, and Tax Incidence -- Short-Run versus Long-Run Effects -- Open versus Closed Economy -- Associated Policy Changes -- Case Study Tax Incidence of Specific Tax Provisions -- Incidence of Taxes in the United States -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: Comparison of the Effects of an Ad Valorem and Specific Commodity Tax on a Monopolist -- 19. Taxation And Economic Efficiency -- Effect of Taxes Borne by Consumers.

Substitution and Income Effects -- Quantifying the Distortions -- Measuring Deadweight Loss Using Indifference Curves -- Measuring Deadweight Loss Using Compensated Demand Curves -- Calculating the Deadweight Loss -- Effect of Taxes Borne by Producers -- Effects of Taxes Borne Partly by Consumers, Partly by Producers -- Taxation of Savings -- Quantifying the Effects of an Interest Income Tax -- Taxation of Labor Income -- Effects of Progressive Taxation -- Case Study The 1993, 2001, and 2003 Tax Reforms -- Secondary Labor Force Participants -- Measuring the Effects of Taxes on Labor Supplied -- Statistical Techniques Using Market Data -- Experiments -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- Appendix: Measuring the Welfare Cost of User Fees -- 20. Optimal Taxation -- Two Fallacies of Optimal Taxation -- The Fallacy of Counting Distortions -- Misinterpretations of the Theory of the Second Best --

Optimal and Pareto Efficient Taxation -- Lump-Sum Taxes -- Why Impose Distortionary Taxes? -- Case Study Estimating the Optimal Tax Rate -- Case Study Rent Seeking, Inequality, and Optimal Taxation -- Designing an Income Tax System -- Why Does More Progressivity Imply More Deadweight Loss? -- A Diagrammatic Analysis of the Deadweight Loss of Progressive Taxation -- Choosing among Flat-Rate Tax Schedules -- Case Study The -- Tax Increase on Upper-Income Individuals: A Pareto Inefficient Tax? -- General Equilibrium Effects -- Case Study Flat-Rate Taxes Arrive on the Political Scene -- Differential Taxation -- Ramsey Taxes -- Differential Commodity Taxes in Advanced Countries with Progressive Income Taxes -- Interest Income Taxation and Commodity Taxation -- Taxes on Producers -- The Dependence of Optimal Tax Structure on the Set of Available Taxes -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems --

Appendix A: Deriving Ramsey Taxes on Commodities -- Appendix B: Derivation of Ramsey Formula for Linear Demand Schedule -- 21. Taxation Of Capital -- Should Capital Be Taxed? -- Relationship among Consumption Taxes, a Wage Tax, and Exempting Capital Income from Taxation -- Equity Issues -- Efficiency Arguments -- Administrative Problems -- Effects on Savings and Investment -- Effects of Reduced Savings in a Closed Economy -- The Distinction between Savings and Investment -- National Savings and Budget Neutrality -- Effects of Reduced Savings in an Open Economy -- Impact on Risk Taking -- Why Capital Taxation with Full Loss Deductibility May Increase Risk Taking -- Case Study Tax Incentives for Risk Taking -- Why Capital Taxation May Reduce Risk Taking -- Measuring Changes in Asset Values -- Capital Gains -- Case Study Equity and the Reduction in Capital Gains Taxes -- Depreciation -- Case Study Distortions from Depreciation -- Neutral Taxation --

Inflation -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 22. The Personal Income Tax -- Outline of the U.S. Income Tax -- Legislated versus Actual Tax Rates -- Case Study A Loophole in the Earned Income Tax Credit? -- Other Taxes -- Principles Behind the U.S. Income Tax -- The Income-Based Principle and the Haig-Simons Definition -- The Progressivity Principle -- The Family-Based Principle -- The Annual Measure of Income Principle -- Practical Problems in Implementing an Income Tax System -- Determining Income -- Timing -- Personal Deductions -- Deductions versus Credits -- Case Study Temporary Tax Changes -- Special Treatment of Capital Income -- Housing -- Savings for Retirement -- Interest on State and Municipal Bonds -- Capital Gains -- Concluding Remarks -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 23. The Corporation Income Tax -- The Basic Features of the Corporation Income Tax --

The Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax and Its Effect on Efficiency -- The Corporation Income Tax as a Tax on Income from Capital in the Corporate Sector -- Shifting of the Corporate Tax in the Long Run -- The Corporation Tax for a Firm without Borrowing Constraints -- Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax with Credit-Constrained Firms -- The Corporation Tax as a Tax on Monopoly Profits -- Managerial Firms: An Alternative Perspective -- Depreciation -- Combined Effects of Individual and Corporate Income Tax -- Distributing Funds: The Basic Principles -- The Dividend Paradox -- Mergers, Acquisitions, and Share Repurchases -- Does the Corporate Tax Bias Firms toward Debt Finance? -- Distortions in Organizational Form Arising because Some Firms Do Not Have Taxable Income -- Are Corporations Tax Preferred? -- Calculating Effective Tax Rates -- The Corporation Tax as Economic Policy --

Case Study The Proposed Incremental Investment Tax Credit of 1993: An Idea before Its Time? -- Taxation of Multinationals -- Case Study Foreign Income and the Corporation Income Tax -- Should There Be a Corporation Income Tax? -- Why Is There a Corporate Income Tax at All? -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 24.A Student's Guide To Tax Avoidance -- Principles of Tax Avoidance -- Postponement of Taxes -- Shifting and Tax Arbitrage -- Case Study Shorting against the Box -- Tax Shelters -- Case Study The Economics of Tax Avoidance -- Who Gains from Tax Shelters -- Middle-Class Tax Shelters -- Tax Reform and Tax Avoidance -- The 1986 Tax Reform -- Minimum Tax on Individuals -- Subsequent Tax Acts -- Equity, Efficiency, and Tax Reform -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 25. Reform Of The Tax System -- Fairness -- Horizontal Equity Issues -- Vertical Equity -- Efficiency --

Case Study Marginal Tax Rates and the 1986 Tax Reform -- Base Broadening -- Interaction of Fairness and Efficiency Concerns -- Simplifying the Tax Code -- Assessing Complexity -- Increasing Compliance -- Reducing Tax Avoidance -- Reducing Administrative and Compliance Costs -- Sources of Complexity -- The 1986 Tax Reform -- Transition Issues and the Politics of Tax Reform -- Tax Reforms for the Twenty-First Century -- Reforms within the Current Framework -- Major New Reforms -- Case Study Ordinary Income versus Capital Gains -- Case Study IRAs and National Savings -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 26. Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations -- The Division of Responsibilities -- Other Interaction between the Federal Government and the State and Local Governments -- The Size of Financial Transfers -- Case Study Unfunded Mandates -- Principles of Fiscal Federalism -- National Public Goods versus Local Public Goods --

Case Study International Public Goods -- Do Local Communities Provide Local Public Goods Efficiently? -- Tiebout Hypothesis -- Market Failures -- Redistribution -- Other Arguments for Local Provision -- Production versus Finance -- Effectiveness of Federal Categorical Aid to Local Communities -- The Federal Tax System and Local Expenditures -- Concluding Remarks -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 27. Subnational Taxes And Expenditures -- Tax Incidence Applied to Local Public Finance -- Local Capital Taxes -- Property Tax -- Case Study The U.S. Property Tax Revolt -- Income, Wage, and Sales Taxes -- Distortions -- Limitations on the Ability to Redistribute Income -- Rent Control -- Capitalization -- Incentives for Pension Schemes -- Choice of Debt versus Tax Financing -- Short-Run versus Long-Run Capitalization -- Who Benefits From Local Public Goods? The Capitalization Hypothesis --

Absolute versus Relative Capitalization -- The Use of Changes in Land Rents to Measure Benefits -- Testing the Capitalization Hypothesis -- Public Choice at the Local Level -- Problems of Multijurisdictional Taxation -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems -- 28. Fiscal Deficits And Government Debt -- The U.S. Deficit Problem since the 1980s -- Sources of the Deficit Problem -- Factors Not Contributing to the Deficit Problem -- Success in Taming the Deficit: The Experience of the 1990s -- Case Study Measuring Budget Deficits: What's Large, What's Real, and What's Right? -- Consequences of Government Deficits -- How Deficits Affect Future Generations When the Economy Is at Full Employment -- Alternative Perspectives on the Burden of the Debt -- Case Study Austerity in a Recession: Expansionary or Contractionary? -- Improving the Budgetary Process -- Budget Enforcement Act and Scoring -- Capital Budgets --

Other Strategies -- The Long-Term Problem: Entitlements and the Aged -- Review and Practice -- Summary -- Key Concepts -- Questions and Problems.

There are no comments on this title.

เพื่อโพสต์ความคิดเห็น

คลิกที่รูปภาพเพื่อดูในตัวแสดงภาพ

ห้องสมุด:

Thammasat University Library, 2 Prachan Road, Phranakorn, Bangkok 10200

Puey Ungphakorn Library (Rangsit Campus), Circulation Desk 662 564-4444 ext. 1305

Pridi Banomyong Library, Circulation Desk 662 613-3544